Unlike their resilient response to chemical disinfectants, microorganisms are unable to develop UV-C resistance. Widespread use of antibiotics and disinfectants continue to create chemical and drug-resistant “superbugs,” which the CDC lists as a top threat. Alternatives to the Vioguard keyboard
are labor and time intensive; cleaning keyboards adds to the multitude of tasks for which nurses are responsible. Sanitizing solutions must be visibly wet on a surface for two to five minutes to be effective. There is also the issue of human error. Understaffed and hectic environments make it difficult to ensure proper cleaning protocols are followed, and cracks and crevices in the keyboards render them difficult to clean. Biohazardous waste presents a third issue. Toxic chemicals are used in many facilities and some hospitals have banned various cleaning materials and antimicrobial agents.